I assume you already know what is mod_rewrite, php script and why you need to mod_rewrite your php script. So below is the step by step procedure that will help you do mod_rewrite your script. I have also created a list of mod_rewrite tutorials for specific php scripts. I have to say that this site used to be community of experts in mod_rewrite about two years ago. Now this is a different project, yet some useful info is there. If any of you are willing to dedicate time and energy into further development of such project, i am more than willing to offer hosting space here and developing a forum just for mod_rewrite related quaetions. Feel free to contact me at info [@] doriat.com
So back to the process:
Simply create new file with a name .htaccess Then write the following line in it:Code:
Then upload your file either to root directory of your site (if your php script is installed in root directory) or in subdirectory of your site e.g /forums (if your php script is installed in subdirectory).
This is the easiest part of the mod_rewrite process or at least it takes less time.
For example with forums you want to mod_rewrite links to forums, posts and probably to user's profiles. With some classifieds scripts or cms you want to mod_rewrite links to profiles, ads, news, articles, polls, reviews and comments. With some photo gallery script you want to mod_rewrite links to albums, categories, top and latest uploads, pictures. One main trick here is - mod_rewrite what comes with much of uniqiue and important content.
So i will illustrate this with phpbb 2. For forums it gives the following link viewforum.php?f=2
So you start:
It signifies the start of an
For example, you want link to look like forum2.html (why do we keep number?
it is very important in phpbb, each forum has its own number. As a rule numbers
are very improtant in all php scripts as they give information to script on what
content to bring)
!!!However, there can be unlimited amound of such numbers and we cannot create rewriterule for each of them. So we create a universal rule. In mod_rewrite syntax you do in the following way: ([0-9]*) for numbers, ([a-zA-Z]*) for letters and ([a-zA-Z0-9]*) for numbers and letters. This way mod_rewrite will keep value that script requires. Thus, we have:
RewriteRule ^forum([0-9]*).html viewforum.php?f=2
!!!In order to cover all links viewforum.php?f=Value mod_rewrite uses $n, where n is a consistent number of values.
RewriteRule ^forum([0-9]*).html viewforum.php?f=$1
Here is the list of possible guidance options. [N] - next [L] - last: (see also mod_rewrite cheat sheet for more details on guidance) So your code will look like this:
RewriteRule ^forum([0-9]*).html viewforum.php?f=$1 [L]
So you have created mod_rewrite rule. Next step is...
!!!At this stage you are about to make changes to your php script files. So you need to back up all files that you will change first. Create backup folder on your computer and copy there all files that you will change.!!!This is the hardest part as each php script is not alike, although most php scripts have similar structures of which i will tell in a moment. At this moment i can say that you need to look into code of your php script and find those parts that are responsible for links.
First tip. Open the file and do search for name of the link. For example if you want to modify link viewforum.php?f=$1 then look for viewforum.php
Second tip. When you found appropriate code identify the variable that is vital. For example for viewforum.php?f=$1 $1 is vital as it differes all other pages named viewforum.php.
Third tip. Rename the file to whatever you planned in your mod_rewrite rule, save changes and upload your page overwriting back to your server. Then refresh the page and see if link changed. If yes, you are in the right place, if know, start with tip#1
Fourth tip. After you found out that link has changed, press this link and see if it brings you to right page. If it does not that you need to check your .htaccess file rules. Mostlikely you gave your apache module mod_rewrite wrong rule to rewrite.
!!! This article is in development process, i add here as i have time so please be patient and if you have any questions email them to info [@] doriat.com!!!
In this post i will create a list of common mod_rewrite mistakes or ommissions that i beleive will help you create better mod_rewrite code and will assist you in mod_rewrite of your site. Some of them are related to mod_rewrite code itself, others are related to php and still others to your site code. Here are first two:
1) images problem: When creating a mod_rewrite with a desire to have several folders. For example:
RewriteRule ^(.*)/(.*)/(.*).html$ index.php?id=$1&display=$2&cat=$3 [L]
You face a problem of images not displaying and your styles are not showing correctly. Reason for this is that you create folder with subfolders, while path to images and css files might be relative in your files. For example
Code: < img src=img/sun.gif border=0 >
< css=css/styles.css >
There are two ways out of this situation:
a) You manually change relative path to absolute:
< img src=/img/sun.gif border=0 >
< css=/css/styles.css >
b) or you do not create folders/subfolders structure. So instead make the following code for .htaccess file:
RewriteRule ^(.*)_(.*)_(.*).html$ index.php?id=$1&display=$2&cat=$3 [L]
RewriteRule ^(.*)-(.*)-(.*).html$ index.php?id=$1&display=$2&cat=$3 [L]
2) sessions problem: Some of the premade php scripts have sessions in URLs displaying. For example
These are the hardest to mod_rewrite for one simple reason. It requires addition php coding to remove such sessions at least for guests. (Actually, removing them for guests is the only thing required in terms of sef. The thing is that search engines, especially google will look into the page index.php?photo=3&sessionid=20de08e9b9eb696a51e50b165ec9513f and page index.php?photo=3
as two different pages with the same content, this is pinalized as duplicate content).
The main way out of this problem is remove sessions for guests. For some scripts like phpBB there are instructions on how to do that, for other there are none. So you need spesialised assistance of php programmer to help you out. From personal experience i have to say that for most premade php scripts it is easy to remove, for others possible :)
If it is not possible to remove session then you need to at least modify your php script not to mess up the site. Make sure the session comes after the url - for example
i hope this helps you out. If you want to share your mistakes, tips feel free to post them here. Here is a resource on sessions, Why You Should Disable PHP's session use_trans_sid
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